In total, 306 participants participated in the survey (age: M = 48.43, SD = 15.56; 83.99% Delaware residents). Among them, 169 participants identified as White (55.23%), 40 participants as Black (13.07%), 26 participants as Asian (8.5%), 15 participants as Other (4.9%), and 56 participants did not answer the question (18.3%). See Table 1 for the detailed breakdown of demographics across survey locations.

Survey Locations

We conducted intercept surveys on the Jack A. Markell Trail, a popular trail connecting the city of Wilmington and Battery Park. We selected four survey locations along the trail: (1) Riverfront, (2) Foot Bridge, (3) Little League, and (4) Broad Dyke. See Figure 26 for surveyor locations.

Figure 26: Surveyor Locations

Procedure and Materials

At each survey location, surveyors recruited participants between 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. We conducted data collection between November 15, 2021 — December 10, 2021 (20 days of data collection in total). After obtaining verbal consent and verifying that they are 18 years or older, the surveyor handed an iPad to participants to complete the survey on a Qualtrics Offline Survey App.

Then, participants answered demographics questions and a set of questions regarding their visit to the trail. Participants reported their mode of transportation, length of transportation, location of entering and exiting the trail, the purpose of using the trail, activities at the trail, and how many people are with them at the trail. Participants also completed an item from the Godin leisure-activity scale (Godin 2011), reliance on physical activity at the trail, how much time they spend at the trail, frequency of visits, and change of trail usage due to COVID-19.

Next, participants answered a set of questions about their opinions about the trail. Participants reported how much they like the trail and how much the trail satisfies their needs on a 5-point scale. Participants also reported how well-maintained the part of the trail was (0 = not well-maintained at all, 4 = very well-maintained), and how satisfied they were about the general condition, availability of trash bins, availability of programs, and availability on amenities (0 = not at all satisfied, 4 = very much satisfied). Then, participants reported how much they are taking advantage of the resources in the trail (0 = not at all, 4 = completely), and how satisfied they were about the signs (0 = not at all satisfied, 4 = very much satisfied). Finally, participants reported things they liked about the trail (free-text response), their favorite location and why, and what can be improved about the trail. Participants did not receive compensation.


Godin, Gaston. 2011. “The Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire.” The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada 4 (1): 18–22.